《科技英语》课后*题答桉完整版

发布时间:2021-09-23 08:49:18

Main Content:

UNIT 1 MATHEMATICS Text A “Game Theory” 科技英语阅读方法 “名词化结构” 科技英语翻译技巧 “名词化结构”

Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Paras. 1-3

Main Ideas Game theory can be defined as the science of strategy which studies both pure conflicts (zero-sum games) and conflicts in cooperative forms. There are two distinct types of strategic interdependence: sequential-move game and simultaneous-move game. The typical examples of game theory are given as the basic principles such as prisoners’ dilemma, mixing moves, strategic moves, bargaining, concealing and revealing information. The research of game theory has succeeded in illustrating strategies in situations of conflict and cooperation and it will focus on the design of successful strategy in future.

Part Two

Paras. 4-11

Part Three

Paras. 12-19

Part Four

Para. 20

II. Language Points The games it studies range from chess to child rearing and from tennis to takeovers. (Para.1) Paraphrase: The games it (game theory) studies extends from chess to child bringing-up and from tennis to handovers. range: v. to vary between limits, extend, run in a line e.g. (1) The price ranges from $ 30 to $ 80. (2) The boundary ranges from north to south. takeover: n. the act or an instance of assuming control or management of or responsibility for sth. 接收、接管 e.g. The economy of Hongkong goes well after its takeover. Game theory was pioneered by Princeton mathematician John von Neumann. (Para.2) pioneer: v. to be a pioneer; to originate (course of action etc., followed later by others) e.g. The new treatment for cancer was pioneered by the experts of state hospital. pioneer: n. original investigator of subject or explorer or settler; initiator of enterprise e.g. The young generation was greatly motivated by the pioneers’ exploits. That is, the participants were supposed to choose and implement their actions jointly. (Para.2) Paraphrase: That is, the players were expected to select and carry out their actions together.

… he must anticipate and overcome resistance to his plans. (Para.3) anticipate: v. 1) to expect or realize beforehand; to foresee e.g. The experts are anticipating the negative effects of air pollution. anticipate: v. 2) to deal with or use before proper time 预支 e.g. Ted was not used to saving monthly and he would always anticipate his income. The essence of a game is the interdependence of player strategies. (Para.4) Paraphrase: The key principal of a game is that player strategies are dependent on each other. essence: n.1) the quality which makes a thing what it is; the inner nature or most important quality of a thing e.g. The two things are the same in outward form but different in essence. essence: n. 2) extract obtained from a substance by taking out as much of the mass as possible e.g. milk essence; essence of peppermint (椒薄荷、椒薄荷油) 椒薄荷、 interdependence: n. the quality or fact of depending on each other inter-为前缀, 意为 between each other, 类似的词还有 interchange、 intermarry、 international、 interview 等。 A general principle for a player in a sequential-move game is to look ahead and reason back. (Para.5) Paraphrase: A commonly-applied rule for a participant in a sequential game is to anticipate and think logically in turn. reason: v. to form or try to reach conclusions by connected thought; to think out e.g. (1) Man’s ability to reason makes him different from the animal. (2) I reason in this way about the matter. In principle, any sequential game that ends after a finite sequence of moves… (Para.6) finite: a. limited; having bounds e.g. The petroleum supply is finite for humankind. infinite: a. without limits; having no bounds; (number that cannot be calculated) e.g. infinite space. In contrast to the linear chain of reasoning for sequential games, a game with simultaneous moves involves a logical circle. (Para.7) Paraphrase: A game with simultaneous move requires a logical circular thinking, which is totally different from the linear chain of reasoning for sequential games. … in ignorance of the others’ current actions. (Para.7) ignorance: n. being lacking of knowledge or uninformed e.g. The manager was offended by the ignorance of his plans. The logical circle is squared … (Para.8)

square the circle: to attempt sth. impossible 做(似乎是)不可能的事 When we say that an outcome is an equilibrium, there is no presumption that each person’s privately best choice will lead to a collectively optimal result. (Para.10) Paraphrase: When we mention that game result is an equilibrium, there is no assurance that each player’s best choice will lead to the best effect for all the players.
此句是一个复合句,when 引导时间状语从句,主句 there is no presumption 中又包含一个同位语从 句 that each person’s privately best choice will lead to a collectively optimal result,修饰 presumption。

But in spite of these flaws … (Para.11) flaw: n. imperfection; crack; invalidating defect in document e.g. There was a fatal flaw in his argument that he gave an inaccurate definition. Such cooperative behavior can be achieved in repeated plays of the game because the temporary gain from cheating (confession) can be outweighed by the long-run loss due to the breakdown of cooperation. (Para.13) Paraphrase: Since the long-term loss brings more harmful effects than the temporary gain from cheating (confession) once cooperation breaks down, cooperative behavior can be achieved in repeated plays of the game. outweigh: v. to exceed in weight, value, importance or influence e.g. Many athletes believe that disadvantages of taking dopes (兴奋剂、麻醉剂) far 兴奋剂、 outweigh the advantages. out- 为 前 缀 , 意 为 in a way that surpasses, exceeds, or goes beyond 。 常 见 词 有 outargue/outbalance/outbid/outclass/outdo/outdrive/outeat/outgo/outlearn/outlive/outplay。 Game theory quantifies this insight and details the right proportions of such mixtures. (Para.14) insight: n. piece of knowledge obtained, understanding; power of seeing into sth. with the mind e.g. (1) a man of deep insight (2) Good teachers have insight into the problems of students. By so doing, he removes his own temptation to renege (食言、 ) on a promise or to forgive 否认 others’ transgressions (违犯、犯规). (Para.15) Paraphrase: By so doing, he can resist the temptation to break his own promise or to excuse for others’ offense. Recall Winston Churchill’s dictum of hiding the truth in a “bodyguard of lies”. (Para.19) recall: v. 1) to bring back to mind; to remember something e.g. (1) Twenty years later he could still clearly recall the event. (2) I seem to recall seeing the document. recall: v. 2) to order the return of a person who belongs to an organization e.g. The ambassador was recalled when war broke out.

To convey information, use an action that is a credible “signal”… (Para.19) convey: v. to make (ideas, feelings, etc.) known to another e.g. (1) Language conveys message. (2) Words cannot convey how delighted I am that I have accepted by Yale University.

III. Background Information Avinash Dixit and Barry Nalebuff
阿维纳什·迪克斯特是普林斯顿大学经济学教授。巴里·内尔巴夫是耶鲁大学组织和管理学院管 理学教授。

Game Theory
博弈论,有时也称为对策论,是应用数学的一个分支,是研究具有斗争或竞争性质现象的数学理 论和方法,也是运筹学(operational research)的一个重要学科。目前在生物学、经济学、国际关 系、计算机科学、政治学、军事战略和其他很多学科都有广泛的应用。

zero-sum games (Para.1)
零和博弈(非合作博弈) ,一人或一方得益必然引起另一人或另一方损失的局面。

John von Neumann (Para.2)
约翰·冯· 诺依曼(1903-1957) ,匈牙利裔美国数学家, 普林斯顿大学和普林斯顿高等研究所教授, 曾任研制原子弹的顾问,并参加研制计算机,被称为计算机之父,1954 年成为美国原子能委员会 委员。作为 20 世纪最杰出的数学家之一,他在数理逻辑、测度论、格伦和连续几何学方面都有开 创性的成果;在博弈论和控制论、力学、经济学和计算机研制等领域做出了杰出的贡献。他同莫 根·施特恩合作,写出《博弈论和经济行为》一书,这是博弈论中的经典著作,使他成为数理经 济学的奠基人之一。

tic-tac-toe (Para.6)
井字棋,一种益智游戏。两人轮流在一井字形方格内画“x”和“o” ,以先列成一行者得胜。

John Nash (Para.8)
约翰·纳什,1928 年 6 月 13 日出生在美国西弗吉尼亚州,1950 年获得美国普林斯顿高等研究院 数学博士学位,1951 年至 1959 年在麻省理工学院(MIT)数学中心任职。现任普林斯顿大学数学 系教授,美国科学院院士。国际公认的博弈论创始人之一,是继冯·诺依曼之后最伟大的博弈论 大师之一。纳什主要在纯数学领域从事学术研究,其数学成就十分突出。然而,他对经济学研究 产生重大影响的还是在博弈论上,可以概括为两点:第一,纳什明确区分了合作对策与非合作对 策,并指出,在合作对策中可以达成有约束力的协议,而在非合作对策中,则达不到;第二,对 于两人以上的非合作对策,可能出现什么样的结果,纳什提出了分析方法,这一方法可以用“纳 什均衡”来称谓。后来对博弈论的许多讨论,都是建立在纳什均衡这一概念之上的,他提出的著 名的纳什均衡的概念在非合作博弈理论中起着核心的作用。后续的研究者对博弈论的贡献,都是 建立在这一概念之上的。由于纳什均衡的提出和不断完善为博弈论广泛应用于经济学、管理学、

社会学、政治学、军事科学等领域奠定了坚实的理论基础,1994 年纳什因此获得诺贝尔奖经济学 奖。

Nash equilibrium (Para.8)
纳什均衡,又称为非合作博弈均衡,是博弈论的一个重要术语,以约翰·纳什命名。在一个博弈 过程中,无论对方的策略选择如何,当事人一方都会选择某个确定的策略,则该策略被称作支配 性策略。如果两个博弈的当事人的策略组合分别构成各自的支配性策略,那么这个组合就被定义 为纳什均衡。一个策略组合被称为纳什均衡,当每个博弈者的均衡策略都是为了达到自己期望收 益的最大值,与此同时,其他所有博弈者也遵循这样的策略。

prisoners' dilemma (Para.10)
囚徒困境,博弈论的经典案例。囚徒困境是博弈论的非零和博弈中具代表性的例子,反映个人最 佳选择并非团体最佳选择。虽然困境本身只属模型性质,但现实中的价格竞争、环境保护等方面, 也会频繁出现类似情况。单次发生的囚徒困境,和多次重复的囚徒困境结果不会一样。在重复的 囚徒困境中,博弈被反复地进行。因而每个参与者都有机会去“惩罚”另一个参与者前一回合的 不合作行为。这时,合作可能会作为均衡的结果出现。欺骗的动机这时可能被受到惩罚的威胁所 克服,从而可能导向一个较好的、合作的结果。

Cortes (Para.16)
赫尔南多·科尔蒂斯,16 世纪殖民时代活跃在中南美洲的西班牙殖民者,以摧毁阿兹特克(Aztec) 古文明,并在墨西哥建立西班牙殖民地而闻名。

strategy of brinkmanship (Para.17)
边缘化策略。边缘化策略指在国际政治和外交活动中,故意使局势变得无法控制的策略,正是由 于局势的无法收拾可能令其他对手难以接受,从而迫使对手做出妥协。

Thomas Schelling (Para.17)
托马斯·谢林(1921-) ,2005 年诺贝尔经济学奖获得者,1951 年获得哈佛大学经济学博士学位, 曾在美国哈佛大学肯尼迪学院执教 20 年, 担任政治经济学教授, 并获得退休名誉教授的称号, 1991 年被选为美国经济学协会会长,现在美国马里兰大学公共政策学院和经济系担任教授,并获得退 休名誉教授称号。他教授的课程除包括经济学理论外,还涉及外交、国家安全、核战略以及军控 等多方面。谢林重要的理论著作包括《冲突战略》《武器与影响》等,其中前者是相关领域中最 、 具有开创性的理论著作之一。他的理论和思想不仅运用在经济学分析中,在外交、军事领域也影 响深远。

Winston Churchill (Para.19) 温斯顿·丘吉尔(1874-1965) ,二战期间英国首相,英国传记作家、历史学家、政治 家,1953 年诺贝尔文学奖获得者。

IV. Skills for Reading

名词化结构
大量使用名词化结构是科技英语最突出的特点之一。使用名词化结构的优点正是叙述客观,强调 动作的客体而非动作本身,并能够用来代替同位语从句等较长的句子结构,从而使得文章简洁紧 凑。理解名词化结构的重点是确定中心名词。名词化结构主要分为以下三类: 1. 单纯名词化结构 指由一个或多个名词修饰一个中心名词构成的名词化结构。(e.g. water purification system) 2. 复合名词化结构 名词、 副词、 分词及介词短语等多个前置或后置修饰语构成。 (e.g. 指由一个中心名词和形容词、 acute bacterial peritonitis 急性细菌性腹膜炎) 3. 由动词派生的名词化结构 指由实义动词派生的名词搭配介词短语构成,在句中充当主语、宾语或介词宾语。 (e.g. Archimeds first discovered the principle of displacement of water by solid bodies. 阿基米德最先发 现了固体排水的原理。 )

V. Skills for Translation 名词化结构
1. 2. 3. 将名词化结构译为动词 (e.g. 由动词派生的名词化结构) 将名词化结构译为动宾关系 (e.g. 复合名词化结构) 将名词化结构译为独立的从句 (e.g. 名词化结构较长而且较为复杂的情况)

VI. Translation Practice 名词化结构
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 无线网状网的首次应用是在社区接入网中,例如在加州的 Cerritos 社区,采用 Tropos Networks 或 Garland 的设备,由 NexGen City 建网,所用的专用芯片来自 MeshNetworks。 2) 变压器是一种利用互感原理的重要实用装置。 3) 在 19 世纪,潮汐振荡和声重力振荡的理论曾经是饶有兴趣的课题。 4) 增加了对成本的极小化的刺激,成本更具透明度。 5) 在蜂窝网中布设 911 系统可以分三个阶段来进行。 6) 由于已投入使用的或者处于研发阶段的纳米制品的范围极广, 因此确定先测试哪一种材料 以及如何进行测试是至关重要的。 7) 但是所有的博弈所具有的共同特征就是相互作用。 8) 技术发展造成的成本的降低、性能的提高以及网络的广泛应用使得建造更大的工程、人工 智能(智能代理、知识库系统、数据挖掘及智能过滤等等)将愈加可行。

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 互赢博弈和互败博弈 2) 连续策略博弈

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B.

联立策略博弈 直线推理 循环推理 纳什均衡 支配性策略 最优化结果 合作破裂 边缘化策略

1) pure conflict 2) competition and cooperation 3) strategic interdependence 4) prisoners’ dilemma 5) long-run loss 6) tit-for-tat strategy 7) mixing one’s moves 8) hit a passing shot cross-court or down the line 9) monopoly market 10) equilibrium shares

Main Content:

UNIT 2 MEDICINE Text A “Making a Little Progress” 科技英语阅读方法 “复合词” 科技英语翻译技巧 “科技术语”

Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Para. 1

Main Ideas The government decided to take an initiative to fight against cancer by means of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology holds promise for cancer treatment on account of two main reasons: size and function. Two kinds of nanoparticles—nanocrystals of iron oxide and quantum dots—have been used for cancer detection in tests on mice. Three kinds of nanoparticles—dendrimers, carbon nanotubes and liposomes—have been used in tests for cancer killing. In spite of great progress in cancer nanotechnology, there are still many problems to solve.

Part Two

Para. 2

Part Three

Paras. 3-8

Part Four

Paras. 9-18

Part Five

Paras. 19-21

II. Language Points … to bring new blood to an old and desperate fight. (Para.1) new blood: n. new member, new comer (=fresh blood) e.g. The company certainly needs some fresh blood with new ideas. It’s a well-funded sign that expectations for nanotech solutions to cancer extend to the highest governmental levels, and it comes at a time when the battle against the disease seems to be at a standstill. (Para.1) Paraphrase: Highest government levels are expecting nanotech solutions to cancer. It comes just in time since the battle against cancer seems to have come to a dead end.
此句是一个长句。第一个 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是 that 引导的句子;第二个 it 指代上述的事 实,即 a well-funded sign that expectations for nanotech solutions to cancer extend to the highest governmental levels; when 引导定语从句。

… which then emit radio signals. (Para.4) emit: v. to give out; to make a sound 微弱的、 e.g. (1) Madam Curie found that radium (镭) emitted a faint (微弱的、暗淡的) blue light. (2) The face of the girl turned white and she emitted a low moan. … as they revert to their original spins. (Para.4) revert to: to return to a previous state. e.g. (1) If you revert to your eating habit, you’ll put on weight again. (2) The house reverted to its former state of wreck (毁坏、严*苹). 毁坏、 …, usher the protons to their original spins. (Para.4) usher: v. to lead sb. politely to some place e.g. The waitress ushered us to our seats reserved. … then tacked on an antibody. (Para.5) tack … on: to add e.g. (1) She tacked a ribbon on to her hat. ending tacked on.

(2) It’s a tragic play but with a happy

Adjusting the particles’ sizes creates probes … (Para.7) probe: n. a slender, flexible surgical instrument used to explore a wound or body cavity; an investigation into unfamiliar matters or questionable activities e.g. (1) The surgeon examined his stomach with a probe. (2) There is a congressional probe into price fixing (限价、限定价格). 限价、 probe: v. to explore with or as if with a probe 范围、 e.g. (1) The surgeon probed a wound to find its extent (范围、程度). (2) She tried to probe my mind and discover what I was thinking. Cadmium is a poisonous metal, however, so until long-term toxicity studies of the

nanoparticles are conducted, use of quantum-dot probes will be limited to animals and tissue samples. (Para.8) Paraphrase: Cadmium is a poisonous metal. Because of that, quantum-dot probes can only be used on animals and tissue samples until its safety has been established. … mice riddled with human epithelial-cell cancer. (Para.11) riddle … with …: to be full of; to make a lot of holes with sth. e.g. (1) The soccer team produced a disappointing performance riddled with errors. (2) A gunman riddled the facade (正面) of the building with bullets. … home in on the cancer cells. (Para.11) home in on: to move or lead toward a goal e.g. (1) A large insect was homing in on his neck. in on the truth.

(2) The investigators were homing

They burn their way through cancer. (Para.12) Paraphrase: Carbon nanotubes can kill cancer cells by burning them. … the p53 gene will initiate cellular suicide. (Para.15) initiate: v. (fml) to make sth. start e.g. (1) The large company initiated a management training programme for its personnel. (2) We shall initiate urgent discussions with our trade partners. … the cell keeps growing and can become malignant. (Para.15) malignant: a. virulent 恶性的 e.g. Fortunately, after the test, his tumor was benign, not malignant. … patients with advanced solid tumors. (Para.18) advanced: a. 1) far along in course or time 2) progressive 3) of high level e.g. (1) The old man is so optimistic and energetic that we can never imagine him to be a patient with advanced lung cancer. (2) They have developed an advanced communications system. (3) She had difficulty learning advanced mathematics. If cancer nanotechnology does live up to its promise … (Para.21) live up to: to satisfy; to fulfill e.g. The boy was very happy because his father had lived up to the promise that the family would go to the amusement park if he had a good performance in the final exam.

III. Background Information

Text A
It introduces nanotechnology taking on cancer detection and treatment. It is a brand-new therapy in human’s fight against cancer. Some kinds of nanoparticles have been used in tests. Although it holds promise for cancer treatment in humans, standardized techniques should be taken into consideration.

National Cancer Institute (Para.1)
美国国家癌症研究所。1937 年美国总统罗斯福批准国家癌症法案(National Cancer Act) ,随后 NCI 正式成立。

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) (Para.3)
磁共振成像(MRI)是利用收集磁共振现象所产生的信号而重建图像的成像技术,因此,也称自 旋体层成像、核磁共振 CT。MRI 可以使 CT 显示不出来的病变显影,是医学影像领域中的又一重 大发展。它是 20 世纪 80 年代初才应用于临床的影像诊断新技术。它具有高度的软组织分辨能力, 不需使用对比剂即可显示血管结构等独特的优点。几乎适用于全身各系统的不同疾病,如肿瘤、 炎症、创伤、退行性病变以及各种先天性疾病的检查。对颅脑、脊椎和脊髓病的显示优于 CT。它 可不用血管造影剂即可显示血管的结构,故对血管、肿块、淋巴结和血管结构之间的相互鉴别有 其独到之处。 它还有高于 CT 数倍的软组织分辨能力, 能够敏感地检测出组织成分中水含量的变化, 因而常比 CT 更有效和更早地发现病变。MRI 能清楚、全面地显示心腔、心肌、心包及心内其它 细小结构,是诊断各种心脏病以及检查心功能的可靠方法。

Holy Grail (Para.9)
圣杯,圣盘。圣杯的传说来自于基督教,传说那是耶稣基督在最后的晚餐中使用的绿柱玉琢制的 酒杯。圣杯在延续千年的传说之后,常常被用来代表众人追求的最高目标,而它的另外一层含义, 则是一种对渺茫希望的暗示。

dendrimer (Para.9)
树枝状聚合物。参考见:http://www.nanoctr.cn/info/1052.html 国家纳米科学中心 “...... 纳米医学 将给医学界,诸如癌症、糖尿病和老年性痴呆等疾病的治疗带来变革,已经获得越来越多的认同。 利用纳米技术能够把新型基因材料输送到已经存在的 DNA 里,而不会引起任何免疫反应。树形聚 合物(dendrimers) 就是提供此类输送的良好候选材料。因为,它是非生物材料,不会诱发病人的免 疫反应,没有形成排异反应的危险;所以,可以作为药物的纳米载体,携带药物分子进入人体的 *循环,使药物在无免疫排斥的条件下,发挥治病的效果。这种技术用于糖尿病和癌症治疗是 很有希望的。 ”

carbon nanotube (Para.9)
纳米碳管。它是 1991 年才被发现的一种碳结构。理想纳米碳管是由碳原子形成的石墨烯片层卷成 的无缝、中空的管体。石墨烯的片层一般可以从一层到*俨悖幸徊闶┢愕某莆ケ 纳米碳管(Single-walled carbon nanotube, SWNT) ,多于一层的则称为多壁纳米碳管(Multi-walled carbon nanotube, MWNT) 。SWNT 的直径一般为 1-6nm,最小直径大约为 0.5nm,但 SWNT 的直 径大于 6nm 以后特别不稳定,会发生塌陷,长度则可达几百纳米到几个微米。MWNT 的层间距约 为 0.34 纳米,直径在几个纳米到几十纳米,长度一般在微米量级,最长者可达数毫米。

liposome (Para.9)
脂质体。它是一种定向药物载体,属于靶向给药系统的一种新剂型。脂质体由磷脂、胆固醇等为

膜材包合而成。它可以将药物粉末或溶液包埋在直径为纳米级的微粒中,这种微粒具有类细胞结 构,进入人体内主要被网状内皮系统吞噬而激活机体的自身免疫功能,并改变被包封药物的体内 分布,使药物主要在肝、脾、肺和骨髓等组织器官中积蓄,从而提高药物的治疗指数,减少药物 的治疗剂量和降低药物的毒性。

p53 gene (Para.15)
p53 基因是一种抑癌基因, 是迄今发现的与人类肿瘤相关性最高的基因。 它位于人类第 17 染色体, 是由 393 个氨基酸组成的磷脂蛋白。 蛋白在正常细胞中含量较低。 p53 如果 DNA 受损等情况发生, p53 蛋白就会增加,这时起到 3 个作用:抑制细胞生长、DNA 修复及细胞消亡。

transferrin (Para.17)
转铁蛋白(TRF) 。它是血浆中主要的含铁蛋白质,负责运载由消化管吸收的铁盒由红细胞降解释 放的铁。以一种复合物的形式进入骨髓中,供成熟红细胞的生成。TRF 主要由肝细胞合成,半衰 期为 7 天。血浆中 TRF 的浓度受铁供应的调节,在缺铁状态时,血浆 TRF 浓度上升,经铁有效治 疗后恢复到正常水*。

Food and Drug Administration (Para.18)
美国国家食品药品管理局(FDA) ,隶属于美国卫生教育福利部,负责全国药品、食品、生物制品、 化妆品、兽药、医疗器械以及诊断用品等的管理。

diabetes (Para.21)
糖尿病是由胰岛素在人体内绝对或相对缺乏引起的代谢紊乱,其病理变化涉及糖、脂肪、蛋白质 等代谢紊乱,临床症状为血糖升高,尿中含糖,出现多饮、多食、多尿的“三多”现象,严重者 往往会发生心血管、 眼睛及神经系统并发症。 糖尿病主要有两种类型: 胰岛素依赖型糖尿病 1、 (即 I 型糖尿病) ,多发病在 30 岁以下人群;2、非胰岛素依赖型糖尿病(即 II 型糖尿病) ,多发于成年 人或老年人。

IV. Skills for Reading 复合词
大量使用复合词是科技文章的特点之一,它可以起到使句子精炼生动的功能。复合词从过去的双 词组合发展到多词组合。其中复合名词通常由两个词构成,它们或者直接放在一起,或者分开; 复合形容词通常由连字符连接两个或多个词构成;此外还有少量的复合动词(e.g. mass-produce) 。 合成之后的复合词往往无法在词典中直接查到词义,因此需要先借助词典确定单个词语的含义, 然后结合复合词的构成特点来理解其含义。 1. 复合名词的构成: 复合名词的构成: 1) 名词+名词 (e.g. 见 P47,下同。) 2) 形容词+名词 3) 分词+名词 4) 名词+动名词 5) 形容词+动名词 6) 多词复合名词 (由两个以上的修饰词加上中心名词构成,如 industrial distribution equipment 工业配电装置。 ) 2. 复合形容词的构成: 复合形容词的构成:

3.

1) 名词/形容词/副词+形容词 (e.g. 见 P47,下同。) 2) 形容词/数词+名词 3) 名词/形容词/数词+名词-ed 4) 名词/代词/形容词/副词+分词 5) 多词复合形容词 (如 out-of-date 过时的) 复合动词的构成: 复合动词的构成: 1) 动词+介词/连词+动词 (如 point-and-click 点击) 2) 动词+介词 (即将一个动词词组中的动词与介词用连词符号连接为一个词,如 sign-on 登 录。 ) 3) 形容词+动词 (如 mass-produce 成批生产)

V. Skills for Translation 科技术语
通常专业科技术语会有约定俗成的依法,或有全国科技名词审定委员会来推荐译名。常见的术语 译法分为以下几类: 1. 意译 (即通过对原词的仔细推敲和理解,准确地译出其表达的科学概念。) 2. 音译 (即根据英语单词的发音译成读音与原词大致相同的中文。通常表示计量单位的词和新*发明 的科技材料或产品采用这种译法。 ) 3. 意音结合译 (即在音译之后加上一个表示类别的词,或者把原词的一部分音译,而另一部分意译。 ) 4. 直译 (即在科技文献中有些词可以直接使用原文,如商标、牌号、型号和表示特定意义的字母。 )

VI. Translation Practice 科技术语
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 博弈论,对策论 11)哈西值 2) 密码学,密码系统 12)MD5 算法 3) 公钥 13)SHA-1 算法 4) 密钥 14)MIME 标准 5) 数字签名 15)Linux 系统 6) 即时成像 16)ActiveX 控件 7) 电子货币 17)Java 语言 8) 源代码 18)投资回报率 9) 宝丽来公司 19)IP 协议 10) 柯达 20)波长 21)纳米材料 22)纳米系统 23)纳米技术 24)盘尼西林(音译) ;青霉素(意译) 25)荷尔蒙(音译) ;激素(意译) 26)晚期癌症 27)靶向细胞 28)宿主 29)微机械学 30)镭射(音译) ;激光(意译)

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 磁共振成像

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) B.

氢质子 磁性 纳米晶体 造影剂,对比剂 量子点 硒化镉 纳米碳管 上皮细胞 *红外线激光

1) death rate / mortality 2) iron oxide 3) membrane 4) mechanical effect 5) side effect 6) antibody 7) radiation therapy 8) cell line 9) advanced tumor 10) biological agent

Main Content:

UNIT 3 GENETIC ENGINEERING Text A “Ready or Not? Human ES Cells Head Toward the Clinic” 科技英语阅读方法 “缩微词” 科技英语翻译技巧 “词的转译、增译和省译”

Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Paras. 1-6

Main Ideas Although hES cells hold promise for the clinic, they still carry some risks in practice that discourage most groups from clinical trials except one company-Geron. Keirstead and his colleagues have chosen spinal cord injuries as the first trial and carried out several experiments with the main purpose to indicate that the treatment can be safe. Some potential problems may turn up with the clinical trials, such as improper differentiation, tumor formation, animal contamination and new mutations in culture. There is still a long way to go before cell therapies come onto the stage.

Part Two

Paras. 7-12

Part Three

Paras. 13-22

Part Four

Paras. 23-26

II. Language Points But several hurdles remain. (Introductory Remarks) hurdle: n. obstacle or difficulty e.g. (1) Persuading investors is the biggest hurdle we face. been removed. … pleaded with his colleagues to vote with him. (Para.1) plead with: to ask for; to beg e.g. He pleaded with her to stay, but she refused. But these same traits also increase the risk … (Para.4) trait: n. characteristic e.g. (1) Generosity is one of his personality traits. (2) It’s a genetic trait that causes her deafness at an early age. … ending up in the wrong place … (Para.4) end up: to be in a particular place or state finally e.g. Keep on doing that and you’ll end up in serious trouble. But these same traits also increase the risk that renegade cells could, as they have in animal studies, cause unwanted side effects, ending up in the wrong place or even sparking cancerous growth. (Para.4) Paraphrase: But these same characteristics also increase the risk that differentiated cells could cause unnecessary side effects. They may be injected in the wrong place of the body or they can even cause cancers. … and caution that a premature rush to patients … (Para.6) caution: v. (fml) to warn e.g. The policeman cautioned the prisoners not to play any tricks. Geron chose a plausible target for the first trial … (Para.7) plausible: adj. likely to be true, reasonable e.g. (1) A bomb was the only plausible explanation for the plane crash. was plausible but that didn’t necessarily mean it was true. … easier to tackle than diseases such as … (Para.7) tackle: v. to deal with; to handle e.g. I don’t think I can tackle the problem until next week. Even the skeptics say Geron chose a plausible target for the first trial, as spinal cord injuries may be significantly easier to tackle than diseases such as diabetes or Parkinson. (Para.7) Paraphrase: Even critics say that Geron chose a sensible target in the first trial, for spinal cord injuries may be far easier to cure than diseases like diabetes or Parkinson.

(2) The final hurdles have

(2) The story

Proving safety is a tall enough order. (Para.13) Paraphrase: Proving safety is very difficult. … an approach that may circumvent some of these problems. (Para.14) circumvent: v. (fml) to avoid cleverly; to bypass e.g. (1) Ships are registered abroad to circumvent employment and safety regulations. (2) Motorists attempted to circumvent traffic jams. … thus highlighting the importance of proper differentiation … (Para.14) highlight: v. to emphasize e.g. Could you please highlight the problems of urban poverty at the meeting? … 97% of cells express genes ... (Para.16) express: v. to manifest (遗传学)显示,表现 e.g. Half of the people who inherit the gene express it. No one is even considering putting in any na?ve ES cells. (Para.16) Paraphrase: No one is thinking about using any unspecialized cells. Cultured cells are often kept alive … (Para.18) culture: v. to grow in a specially prepared nutrient medium e.g. Scientists have succeeded in culturing these microorganisms in the lab. culture: n. 1) a special substance that is used to grow germs (营养基) 2) the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education 3) the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization e.g. (1) Animal cell culture became a routine laboratory technique in the 1950s. (2) He is a man of little culture. (3) The reason that the agency is doomed to inaction has something to do with the FBI culture. … introduce exotic animal viruses. (Para.19) exotic: a. from outside; foreign e.g. Now there are various kinds of exotic fruits on our market. … another potential downside to using mouse feeder cells. (Para.21) downside: n. (singular) disadvantage; the negative aspect e.g. (1) We face an option with a downside as well as benefits. (2) Unemployment, inflation and inequality are often the downside of a market economy. … may have been overstated. (Para.21) overstate: v. to exaggerate [antonym] understate e.g. He may have overstated his ability in the interview. … a prerequisite for safety … (Para.24)

prerequisite: n. prior condition e.g. This course is a prerequisite to more advanced studies.

III. Background Information stem cell (Para.1)
干细胞是一种未充分分化的尚不成熟的细胞,具有再生各种组织器官和人体的潜在功能,医学界 称之为“万用细胞” 。人体干细胞分两种类型,一种是全功能干细胞,可直接克隆人体;另一种是 多功能干细胞,可直接复制各种脏器和修复组织。人类寄希望于利用干细胞的分离和体外培养, 在体外繁育出组织或器官, 并最终通过组织或器官移植, 实现对临床疾病的治疗。 胚胎干细胞 (ES 细胞)是一种高度未分化细胞。它具有发育的全能性,能分化出成体动物的所有组织和器官,包 括生殖细胞。

hES cells (Para.2)
人体胚胎干细胞。胚胎干细胞是由受精卵经过五至六次分裂后发育而来,本身是一种未分化细胞。 它在胚胎发育过程中逐渐失去多能性,最终可分化成为组成各种器官的细胞系,它是具有全能性 的干细胞。

Geron (Para.5)
杰龙公司。美国一家著名的生物技术及制药公司,它于 1990 年经合并成立公司,总部设在加利福 尼亚州的门洛帕克。

oligodendrocyte (Para.8)
少突细胞是一种神经胶质细胞,它负责制造一种称为髓磷脂的物质,形成包囊神经细胞的髓鞘。 如果把神经细胞比作电线里面的金属丝,髓鞘就类似于外层的塑料皮,能起到绝缘作用,它还能 加快电信号在神经中的传递。少突细胞是大脑中的一种神经胶质细胞,在大脑发育过程中产生髓 磷脂,并随着年龄增长对髓磷脂起维持、修复作用。

myelin sheath (Para.8)
在脑和脊髓中,神经纤维被一隔离层包绕,这层保护层叫做髓鞘,它可以使电信号快速传导。由 于有这些脂肪外鞘,神经冲动(也就是神经系统发出的信号)才可以从一个个断断续续的停顿点 (我们叫它节点) ,跳到另一个停顿点。只有这样才能够快速地传递信号。髓鞘是包裹在神经轴索 外面、由髓鞘细胞的细胞膜组成的鞘膜。它有两种生理功能:一、促使钠离子顺利通过,传导神 经冲动;二、起绝缘作用。当脑脊髓神经轴索的髓鞘发生脱失,便会出现脱髓鞘疾病。病因有两 类:髓鞘破坏;髓鞘形成*

fibroblast (Para.10)
纤维原细胞,又称成纤维细胞,是结缔组织中最常见的细胞。其细胞形态多样,常见的有梭形、 大多角形和扁*星形等,其形态尚可依细胞的功能变化及其附着处的物理性状不同而发生改变。 成纤维细胞尚可合成和分泌胶原纤维、弹性纤维、网状纤维及有机基质。纤维原细胞的主要功能 是修复损失及成骨作用。

astrocyte (Para.14)
星形细胞是胶质细胞中体积最大的一种,与少突胶质细胞合称为大胶质细胞(macroglia) 。细胞呈

星形、核圆形或卵圆形,较大,染色较浅。星形胶质细胞是哺乳动物脑内分布最广泛的一类细胞, 也是胶质细胞中体积最大的一种。用经典的金属浸镀技术(银染色)显示此类胶质细胞呈星形, 从胞体发出许多长而分支的突起,伸展充填在神经细胞的胞体及其突起之间,起支持和分隔神经 细胞的作用。

teratoma (Para.15)
卵子受精后,即可生长发育,一个细胞变成两个,两个变成四个,细胞越来越多,到一定时期后, 细胞分化成皮肤、头发、骨头等组织。这种细胞如在胚胎的早期由整体中分离或脱落下来,混杂 在其他组织内,即可发育成畸胎瘤。在肿瘤中残存有皮肤、粘液、腺体、牙齿、神经组织、脂肪、 软骨与骨,以及肌肉、头发等。有些病人在骶尾部可长出一只手,但却不是一个完整的胎儿。畸 胎瘤与怪胎不一样,后者是发育成一个胎儿,但某些部位缺少,如无脑儿、无上肢、少一条腿等, 畸胎瘤在全身各处均可发生。这种肿瘤多数是良性的,其中的组织细胞大多数已分化成熟,有些 尚未分化成熟的,可随小儿的机体增长逐渐分化完全。但也有一些细胞不再分化成熟,到一定程 度即有恶变的倾向。随小儿年龄的增大恶变率也逐渐增高,肿瘤生长迅速,可穿破胞膜,侵入附 *的组织,也可向远处转移。发现有畸胎瘤的存在,手术切除是唯一的方法。

immune system (Para.17)
人体免疫系统是我们抵抗疾病,特别是抗感染性疾病的非常完整的人体组织系统。它由四个部分 组成:第一是免疫组织,比如皮肤、黏膜、血脑屏障等;第二是免疫器官,包括髓、胸腺、脾脏、 淋巴结;第三是免疫细胞,包括 T 细胞、B 细胞、吞噬细胞等;最后就是由抗体组成的免疫分子。

IV. Skills for Reading 缩微词
缩微法是现代英语构词的主要手段之一,它趋向于任意构词。在阅读科技文章时,读者有必要弄 清所碰到的缩微词的类型,根据其类型来推测其完整的单词构成,然后结合上下文或者查阅词典 来理解该缩微词。简要归纳其类型如下: 1. 截短词 (截取原词的某一或某些音节) (e.g. 见 P79,cpd—compound 化合物。) 2. 字母缩微词 (由各词开头字母组成, 保留原字母读音) (e.g. 见 P79, CDMA—code-division multiple access 码分多址。) 3. 首字母拼音词 (把用首字母组成的缩微词拼读成一个词) (e.g. 见 P79,NATO—North Atlantic Treaty Organization 北大西洋公约组织) 当有些缩微词的全称没有给出时,读者非常需要结合上下文的内容来推测其大概的意思。

V. Skills for Translation

词的转译、 词的转译、增译和省译
1. 转译 1) 词汇的词性转换翻译(如:将原文的动词转译为名词,名词转译为动词,或介词转译为动 词等。 ) 2) 具体词义转译为抽象词义(e.g. 见 P81) 3) 抽象词义转译为具体词义(e.g. 见 P81) 增译 1) 根据词汇的内涵和句中的逻辑关系增词(e.g. 见 P81,下同。 ) 2) 增词以符合汉语表达*惯 3) 根据常识增词 省译 1) 虚义动词的省译(e.g. 见 P82,下同) 2) 英语句中的并列词通常可以省译 3) 助词“的”在科技英语汉译时通常省略 4) 科技英语文章中,大多数形式主语可以省译

2.

3.

VI. Translation Practice 词的转译、 词的转译、增译和省译
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 火箭已经用来 用来探索宇宙。 用来 2) 希腊可追溯历史远早于公元前 776 年, 这是考古工作者做了大量考古发掘工作 大量考古发掘工作之后向世人 大量考古发掘工作 所证明的。 3) 1999 年 8 月, 《印度核原则草案》呼吁部署“由飞机机载导弹 导弹、地面移动导弹 导弹和海上发射 导弹 导弹 导弹”组成的三位一体的核力量。 导弹 4) 由于河道迂回曲折且水流具有方向性,因而铁路运输 铁路运输较之水路运输 水路运输,常常具有节能优势。 铁路运输 水路运输 5) 在铁路经过通航河道的地方,如果不可能把线路升高到使船只在下面畅通无阻地通过的 话,就必须把桥梁修成开启式的,以便江河或运河里的船只 船只通过。 船只 6) 温度计的液柱 的液柱随着空气的冷热而升降。 的液柱 7) 在一个大型铁路站点,站长的工作主要是行政管理性的,这是由于车站运营范围广,工作 广 人员多的缘故。 (省译 of which he is in command) 多 8) 集成电路的发展是电子器件可以做得越来越小。 (省译形式宾语 it)

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 脊髓损伤 2) 专用许可证 3) 自然愈合 4) 中枢神经系统 5) 供养细胞,滋养细胞 6) 异质的 7) (人工)培养的细胞 8) 裸鼠 9) 刺激感

B.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

embryonic stem cells cell therapy cell population clinical trial differentiation a benign tumor sugar molecule immune system mutation

Main Content:

UNIT 4 TELECOMMUNICATIONS Text A “10 Hottest Telecom Technologies of the Year” 科技英语阅读方法 “拼缀词” 科技英语翻译技巧 “形容词和副词的比较级”

Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Paras. 1-3

Main Ideas The industry is thinking technology again and it’s time to check out 10 hottest technologies for the year. PacketCable Multimedia sets cable operators’ offerings apart from a basic telephony service from an ILEC. Wi-Fi roaming technology allows wireless user to wander from a narrowband cellular network onto a broadband Wi-Fi network without changing handsets. Meshed networks provide city- or metro- wide broadband wireless coverage without requiring wired backhauls. With the advent of hosted VoIP telephony, users will be able to manage all their calling features over a web-based interface and gain access to productivity-enhancing applications. Active Ethernet is offered as an alternative to PON and it leverages the best of Ethernet and IP.

Part Two

Paras. 4-8

Part Three

Paras. 9-12

Part Four Part Five

Paras. 13-16 Paras. 17-19

Part Six

Paras. 20-23

II. Language Points The slightest inkling of a recovery … (Para. 1) inkling: n. 1) a slight hint or indication 2) a slight understanding or vague idea or notion e.g. (1) Can you give me some inkling of the technological trend? (2) I have no inkling of what he has lectured.

… technology development never really went out of vogue … (Para.1) out of vogue: no longer popular (Cf. in vogue: popular or welcomed) e.g. That type of cell phone was out of vogue. … broadband has become a commodity service … (Para.5) broadband: n. a wide band of electromagnetic frequencies e.g. Cable operators are making more and more profits in broadband. broadband: adj. of or relating to a wide band of electromagnetic frequencies e.g. Nowadays most urban residents can enjoy broadband service at home. … by prioritizing or reserving bandwidth … (Para.5) prioritize: v. to arrange or deal with in order of importance e.g. (1) Housing is prioritized in the city council’s financial budget. (2) They should prioritize agriculture, infrastructure construction for future cooperation. … for latency-sensitive or feature-rich applications. (Para.5) latency: n. the state or quality of being latent e.g. (1) There is a significant decrease in latency from input port to output port. Several blood tests can detect the virus, even during latency. Leveraging their existing PacketCable … (Para.6) leverage: v. to affect as if by leverage e.g. He leads a lifestyle that is leveraged by business responsibilities. leverage: n. the action of a lever; positional advantage e.g. The government began to exert financial leverage on the economy. In a typical scenario … (Para.7) scenario: n. an outline of a supposed sequence of events e.g. (1) They have laid down a scenario for transmission of signals. (2) In the scenario posed by many climatologists, continued global warming would raise sea levels anywhere from 20 inches to more than 11 feet. The seamless cellular Wi-Fi roaming technology would alert the mobile carrier … (Para.9) seamless: adj. having no seams e.g. (1) All the clothes of our store are made with seamless zippers, real flawless heavenly wear. (2) Seamless mobility is a very important concept recently proposed in telecom industry. The seamless cellular Wi-Fi roaming technology would alert the mobile carrier when a user migrates into a Wi-Fi access point, where it would enable the unit’s broadband capabilities while the voice conversation continued. (Para.9) Paraphrase: When a user moves into a Wi-Fi zone, the seamless cellular Wi-Fi roaming technology would prompt the mobile carrier to transfer the signal from the cell tower to the

(2)

Wi-Fi access point at which the mobile phone’s broadband capabilities would be activated while the voice conversation continued. … because they will be able to save frequency spectrum … (Para.10) spectrum: n. 1) the distribution of a characteristic of a physical system or phenomenon 2) a broad sequence or range of related qualities, ideas, or activities e.g. (1) The primary colors of the spectrum are red, green and blue. (2) A whole spectrum of techniques is employed to do this job. … providing the network greater resiliency than … (Para.14) resiliency: n. 1) the ability of a substance to return to its original shape after it has been pressed or bent 2) the ability to recover quickly from illness, change or misfortune e.g. (1) They have produced the alloy combining strength and resiliency. (2) Her natural resiliency helped her overcome the crisis. … the network is self-organized, self-configuring and self-healing. (Para.14) configure: v. to design or set up with a view to specific applications or uses e.g. (1) The internal security vehicle was configured for rough terrain. chapter guides you through the process to configure the network.

(2) This

… to find the most optimized path … (Para.14) optimize: v. to make as perfect or effective as possible e.g. An inventory management system should be used to optimize inventory turnover time. It’s ludicrous … (Para.16) ludicrous: a. laughable or hilarious because of obvious absurdity or incongruity e.g. (1) The president of Western Union turned him down, saying the price was ludicrous. (2) It is ludicrous that we have to show our pass each time. Service providers are approaching the hosted IP telephony opportunity with a “have it your way” mentality that’s tailored to a particular enterprise’s needs. (Para. 18) Paraphrase: Service providers are trying to seize the hosted IP telephony opportunity and thinking of catering for their customers’ particular needs. Leveraging the ubiquity of standard Ethernet ... (Para.21) ubiquity: n. existence or apparent existence everywhere at the same time e.g. (1) The ubiquity of digital networks has spawned more opportunities of written communication, such as e-mail and blog. (2) The industry will try to leverage the ubiquity of Wi-Fi-equipped mobile computing devices. … can be built out on a pay-as-you-grow basis … (Para.21) pay-as-you-grow: n. a way customers pay only for what they need at the time of purchase while having the option to increase the capacity later on

e.g. (1) This pay-as-you-grow approach is very healthy for the industry and will accelerate the deployment of the network. (2) This is the pay-as-you-grow model: The more you grow with the service, the more likely you will pay for additional value added features. Led primarily by start-ups, including Wave7 Optics and World Wide Packets, and established vendors ARRIS and Cisco, active Ethernet is finding a sizeable audience among independent ILECs, cable operators and municipal utility districts. (Para.23) Paraphrase: Thanks to the efforts of start-ups and several established vendors, the active Ethernet is finding a broad market among independent ILECs, cable operators and municipal utility districts.

III. Background Information Telecommunications Magazine (Lead In)
《电信》杂志是世界电信领域的权威杂志,为全球电信领域的服务供应商提供权威的、可以影响 其运营的重要技术和商务信息。

opex (Para.1)
运营成本(operating expenditure) ,指运营商为维持网络及业务的正常运转而在人力资源、行政管 理、广告等方面的日常开支。

ROI (Para.1)
投资回报率(Return on Investment) ,评价投资项目效益的指标。

VoIP (Para.4)
IP 电话又称作网络电话(Voice over IP) ,它利用互联网或局域网来实现新型电话通讯的 IP 技术。 VoIP 可以在 IP 网络上低成本地传送语音、传真、视频和数据等。

ILEC (Para.4)
本地交换运营商(incumbent local exchange carrier) ,是指从美国“1996 年电信法案”出台后,开 始提供本地电信服务的电话公司。其中包括以前的贝尔运营公司,该公司因 1983 年的同意判决书 而解散,然后成立了股份制集团公司,即地方贝尔运营公司。SBC 通信、Verizon 通信、贝尔南方 (Bell South)和 Qwest 通信四家公司被认为是 ILEC 的代表性企业,在美国通信业界拥有巨大的 影响力。

ESPN (Para.5)
娱乐体育电视网(Entertainment and Sport Programming Network) 。美国迪斯尼公司、ABC 电视网 等联合控股的独立有线电视机构,于 1979 年在美国开播,并迅速成长为体育电视转播界的先锋。

DOCSIS (Para.6)
缆上数据接口规范(Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications,现称之为 CableLabs Certified Cable Modems) ,是关于利用有线电视电缆网络来提供宽带多媒体接入应用的行业标准,是一种以 IP 为中心的一点对多点标准。DOCSIS 标准旨在支持所有现行的和未来的基于 IP 的服务,自发布

之日起就得到了业界极大的关注,随后更得到了众多芯片厂商、设备制造商、运营商及各标准化 组织的支持。

SIP (Para.6)
会话初始协议(Session Initiation Protocol) ,是由 IETF 互联网工程任务组于 1999 年提出的一个基 于 IP 网络,实现实时通讯应用的一种信令协议,用于多方多媒体通信。SIP 支持语音、视频、数 据、电子邮件、聊天、游戏等。

Wi-Fi (Para.9)
无线保真 (wireless fidelity) 是在办公室和家庭中使用的短距离无线技术。 Wi-Fi 是基于 IEEE802.11x 标准的技术。目前,Wi-Fi 包括 IEEE802.11b、802.11a 和 802.11g。Wi-Fi 网络的特点是带宽较高但 通信范围较小, 并且不具有移动性, 但价格便宜, 因此, 它主要用于小范围的无线通讯, 目前 Wi-Fi 网路迅速向人群聚集的地点或楼宇内发展,像咖啡店、酒店、机场候机大厅、写字楼等地为用户 接入互联网的服务。

PDA (Para.9)
手持计算机或个人信息设备(personal digital assistant) 。它是一种轻巧的掌上型计算机,基本功能 之一是个人信息管理,可以用特制的小键盘或笔输入数据或命令,能识别许多手写并用自然语言 表达的命令。与通信网路(有的可经由无线电信道)连接后,可与其他计算机通信,或将机内存 储的数据在传真机上输出。

Meshed Wireless Network (Para.13)
无线网状网是一种基于多条路由、对等网络技术的新型网络结构,具有移动宽带的特性,同时它 本身可以动态地不断扩展,自组网、自管理、自动修复、自我*衡。相对于 Wi-Fi,无线网状网在 组网方式、传输距离以及移动性上都有很大的改进。

IP (Para.17)
互联网协议(Internet Protocol) ,即为计算机网络相互连接进行通信而设计的协议。目前的全球互 联网所采用的协议族是 TCP/IP 协议族。IP 是 TCP/IP 协议族中网络层的协议,是 TCP/IP 协议族的 核心协议。目前 IP 协议的版本号是 4(简称为 IPv4) ,它的下一个版本就是 IPv6。IPv6 正处在不 断发展和完善的过程中,它在不久的将来将取代目前被广泛使用的 IPv4。

PBX (Para.18)
专用电话交换机(Private Branch Exchange) 。俗称程控电话交换机,使电话管理者可集团性管理外 线来电与内线呼出。

softswitch (Para.18)
软交换是基于分组网利用程控软件提供呼叫控制功能和媒体处理相分离的设备和系统。软交换的 基本含义就是将呼叫控制功能从媒体网关中分离出来,通过软件实现基本呼叫控制功能,从而实 现呼叫传输与呼叫控制的分离,为控制、交换和软件可编程功能建立分离的*面。

CO (Para.18)
中心局。距用户最*的电话交换站,可提供交换服务、拨号音服务、专用线路和用户交换功能。

AT&T (Para.19)
美国电话电报公司,创建于 1885 年,其前身是由电话发明人贝尔创建的美国贝尔电话公司。该公 司是本地、长途、互联网及语音与数据服务的全球领导供应商。

IV. Skills for Reading 拼缀词
在现代英语中,拼缀词能起到使行文精炼、新奇的作用,因此大量使用在科技类文章中。绝大多 数拼缀词是名词,极少有拼缀形容词或动词。简要归纳其类型如下: 1. 前词首部 + 后词尾部 (e.g. 见 P113,chunnel—channel + tunnel 英吉利海峡隧道,水底铁路隧道) 2. 前词全部 + 后词尾部 (e.g. 见 P114,copytron—copy + electron 电子复写) 3. 前词首部 + 后词全部 (e.g. 见 P114,autocamp—automobile + camp 汽车宿营地) 4. 前词首部 + 后词首部 (e.g. 见 P114,biotech—biology + technology 应用生物学;生物技术) 根据上述的拼缀词的特点,在阅读科技文章时读者有必要弄清所碰到的拼缀词的类型,根据其类 型来推测由什么单词构成,然后结合上下文或者查阅词典来理解该拼缀词。

V. Skills for Translation 形容词和副词的比较级
1. 比较级单独使用的译法 当英语形容词和副词的比较级单独使用,即在句内不出现比较的对象,这时,比较级可译为 “较”“更”“些”等。 、 、 (e.g. 见 P115) 比较级 + than 的译法 more ...than 在科技英语中常常要根据上下文灵活地进行翻译,比如译为“与……相比,…… 更……”“超过了”等。less than 常常译为“不到”(e.g. 见 P115) 、 。 程度状语 + 比较级的译法 在比较级前加上 much,far,even,still,a bit,a little,yet 等一些表示程度的词或短语,用以 表示强调,汉译时可译为“……得多”“大大……”等,或灵活地在译文中体现这些词或短 、 语的含义。 (e.g. 见 P115) more and more 的译法 两个相同的比较级可以用 and 连接起来重叠使用,汉译时可以译为“越来越……”(e.g. 见 。 P116) the more … the more 的译法 the more …… the more 句型在科技英语中的应用极为广泛。 汉译时多采用顺译法, “越…… 译为 越”(e.g. 见 P116) 。

2.

3.

4.

5.

VI. Translation Practice

形容词和副词的比较级
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 竞争中缺乏耐心 缺乏耐心的一方只能分得较小 较小的一部分。 缺乏耐心 较小 2) 计算机语音在过去 10 年里进步不少,变得更加易懂、易听 易懂、 易懂 易听。 3) 一个有源网中的有源器件实际数量只比无源网中的有源器件数量多不到 1%。 多不到 4) 当网络节点发生故障时, 网状网能提供迂回路由, 因此它的网络弹性优于 优于专用路由或链接 优于 选路。 5) 和笔记本电脑相比,智能手机的最大优点 和笔记本电脑相比,智能手机的最大优点就是它时刻伴随你左右,随开随用。 6) 诸如氧化铁晶体等具有磁性的纳米颗粒比无磁性的颗粒能更快地 更快地引导氢质子回到初始的 更快地 自旋状态。 7) 通货膨胀使得这个地区的经济越来越糟糕 越来越糟糕。 越来越糟糕 8) 参杂程度越高 越高,电子迁移越多 越多,导电性也越强 越强。 越高 越多 越强

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 分组电缆多媒体 2) 服务质量 3) 电缆调*獾髌飨低 4) 原始设备制造商 5) 网状无线网络 6) 基于互联网协议的语音传输 7) 托管语音 IP 8) 虚拟专用网 9) 无源光网 10) 光线路终端 B. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) VoD (video on demand) bandwidth-on-demand seamless mobility real-time videoconference dual-band, dual mode dedicated path daisy chain routing TDM (time division multiplex) FTTH (fiber to the house) FTTP (fiber to the premise)

Main Content:

UNIT 5 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Text A “Your Next Computer” 科技英语阅读方法 “派生词” 科技英语翻译技巧 “非限定动词”

Step:

I.

Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Paras. 1-3

Main Ideas Now people spend countless/many hours using their mobile phone’s Internet connection to download, check or send messages. There are 1.5 billion cell phones in the world today, more than three times the number of PCs. The emergence of mobile phone around the world has been slow but overwhelmingly momentous. As our phones get smarter, smaller and faster and enable users to connect at high speed, it has, in one sense, already turned into the next computer. The future mobile phones one day could actually perform many of the functions of PC, like word processing and Web browsing. Our cell phones aren’t likely to take the fastest road to its bright future. Innovation in the mobile industry is full of zigzags and wrong turns, but one day we’ll leave all PCs behind.

Part Two

Paras. 4-5

Part Three

Paras. 6-9

Part Four

Paras. 10-12

Part Five

Paras. 13-14

II. Language Points … that pops up on his small screen each morning … (Para. 2) pop up: to appear, sometimes unexpectedly e.g. Click here, and a list of files will pop up. … but at 32 he’s too old to indulge his hobby … (Para.3) indulge: v. to let someone do or have sth. that someone enjoys, esp. sth. that is considered bad for someone (usu. with “in”) e.g. (1) My aunt indulges the children dreadfully. (2) His father sometimes indulges in a cigarette. to indulge oneself: (e.g.) I love champagne but I don’t often indulge myself. AT&T rolled out the first cellular network in 1977 … (Para.4) roll out: to produce in large quantities e.g. The company expects to roll out the new software in September. Sales of mobile phones dwarf the sales of televisions, stereos, even the hallowed personal computer. (Para.5) Paraphrase: The sales of televisions, stereos and even the personal computer are small compared to mobile phones.

Today’s most sophisticated phones have the processing power … (Para.6) processing: n. [U] 处理 e.g. processing program 处理程序 / processing circuit 程序电路 / integrated data processing 综合数据处理 / laser processing 激光加工 And more and more of today’s phones have computerlike features, allowing their owners to send e-mail, browse the Web and even take photos; 84 million phones with digital cameras were shipped last year. (Para.6) Paraphrase: Nowadays, more cell phones can function as computers to send e-mail, browse the Web and even take photos. In 2005, 84 million phones equipped with digital cameras were ordered.
此句中的 allowing their owners to send e-mail, browse the Web and even take photos 作伴随状语, 其中 send e-mail, browse the web 和 take photos 三个不定式并列,作 their owners 的宾语补足语。

… to ask whether mobile phones will ever eclipse, or replace, the PC … (Para.6) eclipse: vt. to make another person or thing seem much less important, good or famous e.g. The economy has eclipsed all other issues during this election campaign. eclipse: n. [U] 日食 / 月食 PC proponents say phones are too small and connect too sluggishly to the Internet to become effective at tasks now performed on the luxuriously large screens and keyboards of today’s computers. (Para.6) Paraphrase: PC proponets say mobile phones are not as effective and workable as computers because of their small screens and slow working speed, especially when compared to computers with easy-to-use large screens and key boards.
此句中的 phones are too small … today’s computers 是动词 say 的宾语从句。其中:主语为 phones; are too small and connect 作并列谓语;而 to become effective 为不定式,作状语;performed on the luxuriously large screens and keyboards of today’s computers 为分词短语,作定语修饰 tasks。

PalmOne is among the firms racing to trot out the full-featured computerlike phones … (Para.7) trot out: (infml) to bring out for others to see or admire e.g. I trot out all my best china. … and giving stand-alone iPods a run for their money … (Para.10) a (good) run for one’s money: a good fight; a hard struggle e.g. We’re going to give the other candidate a run for her money. … and all mobile bills will shrink to only a few dollars … (Para.11) shrink: v. (shrank, shrunk) to become ore to make something smaller in amount, size, or value e.g. The productivity improvements have shrunk our costs by 25%.

Defenders of the PC react with religious outrage to this kind of prophecy. (Para.12) prophecy: n. 1) [C] a statement that sth. will happen in the future, esp. one made by someone with religious or magic powers 2) [U] the power or act of making statements about what will happen in the future e.g. (1) These doom and gloom prophecies are doing little to help the economy. (2) She had the gift of prophecy. prophesy: v. e.g. Her ability to prophesy about the future made many people think she was a witch. … but Moore’s Law—the inevitability of annual improvements in computing power—will help phones get there soon, provided that battery life can keep up. (Para.13) Paraphrase: … but with the help of a basic principle—Moore’s Law—phones will be capable of speech recognition if battery life improves.
此句中的 the inevitability of annual improvements in computing power 是对 Moore’s Law 进一步的说 明,provided that=if。

A laser inside the phone emits the pattern of a large keyboard … (Para.13) emit: v. to send out gas, heat, light, sound, etc. e.g. But soon after lunar sunrise, it emitted an extremely powerful blast of radio energy. … the phone world has no open and single set of protocols for programmers to build around … (Para.14) protocol: n. the system of rules and acceptable behavior used at official ceremonies and occasions; a formal international agreement e.g. (1) The Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibits the use of poisonous gases in war. (2) protocol handling input / out steam 协议处理输入 / 出码流;protocol procedure 协议程


III. Background Information Chanukah (Para.1)
Chanukah=hanuka, (犹太教的)献殿节,光明节。每年 12 月左右,为期 8 天,纪念公元前 165 年 犹太人战胜叙利亚人后在耶路撒冷大庙的重新奉献。

iPod (Para.4)
iPod 是苹果公司推出的一种大容量 MP3 播放器,采用 Toshiba 出品的 1.8 英寸盘片硬盘作为存储 介质,高达 10 ~ 40GB 的容量,可存放 2,500 ~ 10,000 首 CD 质量的 MP3 音乐。它还有完善的管理 程序和创新的操作方式,外观也独具创意,是苹果公司少数能横跨 PC 和 Mac *台的硬件产品之 一。除了具备 MP3 播放功能,iPod 还可以作为高速移动硬盘使用,可以显示联系人、日历和任务, 以及阅读纯文本电子书和聆听 Audible 的有声电子书。

PalmOne (Para.7)
Palm 公司主要从事移动及无线网际网络解决方案,是全球首屈一指的掌上电脑供应商。在独有的

Palm OS *台下,奔迈 Palm 掌上电脑提供的解决方案可让用户随时随地携带及存取重要的资料。 通过数以万计以 Palm OS 为基础的应用方案,奔迈 Palm 掌上电脑能够满足个人、企业及教育机构 的需要。现手持电脑制造商 PalmOne 公司更名为 Palm 公司。

qwerty (Para.7)
标准键盘,即各国使用的基于拉丁字母的标准打字机和计算机键盘。q、w、e、r、t、y 是键盘第 一行的前六个字母。

Keitai-crazy kids (Para.9)
拇指少年。指经常玩手机的孩子。Keitai:日语,手机之意。

T1 line (Para.11)
指传输速度可达 1.544Mb/s 的通讯线路。T1 速度和 T3 速度都是 AT&T 的数字传输术语,T1 传输 速度是以 1.544Mbps 的速度传输信号。

Moore’s Law (Para.13)
Intel 公司创建人之一戈登·摩尔(Gordon Moore)的经验法则。1965 年,戈登·摩尔首次提出: 硅芯片上的晶体管数量将会以每年一倍的速度翻番。人们把摩尔定律称为计算机革命的基础,而 摩尔定律从那以后一直延续到今天,成为芯片业发展的圣经。

IV. Skills for Reading 派生词
派生词是把词根与词缀(前缀或后缀)相结合所构成的新词。其中,单词词根决定该词的基本含 义,因此读者有必要学会分析单词的词根,并且多看多记。科技英语常见的词根大多是普通英语 单词或其变体(如 microscope 的词根是 scope,表示的意思是 look) ,但是也有源自古希腊和古拉 丁语的较为生僻的词根 (如 anesthetic 的词根是 aesthesis, 表示的意思是 feeling) 而前缀用来修饰、 。 补充说明或改变单词的意思;后缀用于改变单词的词性。

V. Skills for Translation 非限定动词
为了达到行文简练、结构紧凑的目的,科技英语文章往往使用非限定动词来代替从句来缩短句子。 如使用分词短语和不定式短语来代替定语或状语从句, “介词+动名词短语”来代替定语或状语从 句,分词独立结构来代替同位语从句和状语从句等。在翻译时,首先要确定该成分属于什么样的 非限定动词,然后弄清楚该成分在句中所起的作用,是作定语、状语还是同位语,从而确定翻译 时该成分在汉语中的位置。 1. 分词 2. 动名词 3. 不定式 4. 分词独立结构

VI. Translation Practice 非限定动词
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 最早鼓动该技术的是一些较小的运营商 最早鼓动该技术的是一些较小的运营商 动该技术的是一些较小的运营商,现在该技术也引起了长途电话公司(IXC)和地 区贝尔电话公司(RBOC)的关注。 2) 系统会遵循规则,把字母转换成音素,并且适时应用词性信息 并且适时应用词性信息。 并且适时应用词性信息 3) 每个语音其实都有点不同,得视前后的声音而定,这种现象就叫做连音 得视前后的声音而定, 得视前后的声音而定 这种现象就叫做连音。 4) 如果加速度增加就会最终把所有的结构撕裂,从而形成大的裂缝 从而形成大的裂缝。 从而形成大的裂缝 5) 但是这些特性也增加了危险: 正如在动物研究中那样, 分化的细胞引发了不必要的副作用, 它们不是停留在错误的位置就是引发了癌症的生长。 它们不是停留在错误的位置就是引发了癌症的生长 6) 而那些较缓慢发生的变化则往往持续数十年, 以渐进、 以渐进、 微妙的方式改变我们的生活和工作 方式。 方式 7) 使高级语言及编译程序标准化 使高级语言及编译程序标准化 级语言及编译程序标准化的努力,*年来已经受到人们很大的关注。 8) 开发大规模集成电路 开发大规模集成电路需要大量的工程研究和工程发展工作。

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 现有的技术 2) 语音命令 3) 蜂窝网络 4) 附加存储卡用槽 5) 具有电脑功能 6) 内置式数码相机 7) 建立临时办公室 8) 文字处理能力 9) 标准键盘 10) 定位服务 B. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) flashy memory mobile-phone watchers projection keyboard defenders of the PC speech-recognition system “dual hinge” design the touch-tone pad a phone guy the luxuriously large screen smartphones

Main Content:

UNIT 6 COMPUTER SCIENCE Text A “Get Mean, Go Green” 科技英语阅读方法 “根据上下文的线索猜测词义” 科技英语翻译技巧 “倍数”

Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Part One Paras. 1-2

Main Ideas Reversible computing is the key to unlocking the power of tomorrow’s computing platforms. Reasons why computing architectural changes are inevitable. When reversible computing will be largely adopted depends on their applications. How reversible computing works. Conclusion: It’s time to investigate reversible computing further.

Part Two Part Three

Paras. 3-9 Paras. 10-13

Part Four Part Five

Paras. 14-17 Paras. 18

II. Language Points Businesses may not put much stock in recycling, but when it comes to computing power, … (Para. 1) put stock in sth.: (fig.) to have confidence or credence in sth. e.g. put much / little stock in sb. / sth. I put no stock in that statement. when it comes to sth.: when it is concerned about / involves sth. (used to introduce a new topic or a new aspect of a topic that you are talking about) e.g. Most of us know we should cut down on fat. But knowing such things isn’t much help when it comes to shopping and eating. … where existing technology would falter. (Para.2) falter: v. to operate or perform unsteadily or with a loss of effectiveness e.g. The car was out of sight around a bend in moments, but the engine did not falter or slow down. … computing performance come at a steep price. (Para.3) come at a steep price: to be very expensive; (fig.) to get with sth. unpleasant happening as a result e.g. Fame comes at a steep price. Business has been resistant to those sorts of architectural changes in the past, as witnessed by the limited spread of parallel computing architectures in the corporate world. (Para.4) Paraphrase: Companies have been slow to adopt architectural changes in the past. The slow and restricted use of parallel computing architectures in the IT field is a good example of this. … have been quadrupling the number of gates … (Para.4)

quadruple: v. to multiply or be multiplied by four e.g. (1) China seeks to quadruple its income in twenty years. quadrupled in ten years. The upshot is that it’s getting harder and harder … (Para.4) upshot: n. the final result; the outcome e.g. The upshot is that we’re going for lunch on Friday.

(2) Our profits have

… performance would inevitably flatten out. (Para.6) flatten out: 1) to gradually become completely flat 2) to stop growing or going up e.g. (1) The hills first rose steeply then flattened out towards the sea. (2) Export growth has started to flatten out. … quantum computing, has garnered significant publicity. (Para.8) garner: v. (fml) to amass; to acquire e.g. He has garnered extensive support for his proposals. Every quantum computer is a reversible computer, but not every reversible computer is a quantum computer, Frank notes. (Para.9) Paraphrase: Quantum computers are reversible, but reversible computers are not necessarily quantum computers. 这句话的表达非常精炼含蓄,是前文“To stave off these problems, researchers have been investigating alternative computing techniques. One, quantum computing, has garnered significant publicity.”的转折。这两句话的解释是:研究者研究寻求其它的计算技术。量子计算
引起了人们的关注。采用量子计算的计算机都可称为可逆计算机,但是可逆计算机不仅仅局限于 量子计算机。这两句话的含义是:量子计算并不能完全解决计算机架构和计算的全部问题,要使 计算机实现可逆计算,研究者还要花费更多努力。

When companies will be forced to adopt reversible computing largely depends on their applications. (Para.10) Paraphrase: Applications will decide when companies will adopt reversible computing. 这
句话是该段落的中心句,该段后面的内容是对这句话的具体解释。when 引导的从句作该句子的主 语。

… since much of a laptop’s time is spent twiddling its thumbs. (Para.12) twiddle one’s thumbs: to have nothing to do and wait for sth. to happen e.g. (1) The prospect of waiting around just twiddling his thumbs was appalling. The government cannot expect graduates to twiddle their thumbs on the dole.

(2)

… to reduce clock speed by a factor of two, and decrease power by a factor of four or more … (Para.13) by a factor of: (increases or decreases) by the amount of e.g. The real wage of the average worker has increased by a factor of over ten in the last 70 years.

… no information is discarded … (Para.14) discard: v. to throw away; to reject e.g. (1) 10% of the data was discarded as unreliable. thought of promotion.

(2) She could now discard all

… a spark in the case of static energy, or heat in the case of circuitry (Para.15) in the case of: in a particular situation; concerning e.g. The company only dismisses its employees in the case of gross misconduct. Much of the energy needed to make that change is given off in the form of a spark in the case of static energy, or heat in the case of circuitry. (Para.15) Paraphrase: When nodes change their voltage from positive to negative, much energy is needed. Energy is sent forth in the form of a spark when it is static energy, or heat when it is circuitry.
句中的 that change 指前一句中的 nodes suddenly change their voltage from positive to negative: bits from zero to one。needed to make that change 是非谓语动词词组,作定语修饰 energy。heat 前省略 了前面已经出现的 in the form of。in the form of 译为“以……的方式” ,在此句中可以省略不译。 in the case of 译为“在……的情况下” 。

III. Background Information Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) (Para.2)
半导体研究协会。全称为半导体及相关技术的全球领先大学研究协会。

reversible computers (Para.2)
可逆计算机。它是指能够进行向前计算和向后计算的计算机。它基于可逆逻辑操作。可逆计算的 领军人迈克尔·弗兰克指出,在今后几十年内,与传统计算机相比,可逆计算机的计算速度将提 高几千倍,更加节能,也更省钱。可逆计算在 20 世纪 60 年代初期提出,其思路是在理想状态下 计算中不删除任何信息,产生很少的热量,因而能轻易地向前和向后运算。

computing architecture (Para.4)
计算架构主要是指设计和研究新型计算系统。计算架构师通过提高计算机的速度、存储量及可信 度并降低其成本和能量消耗来提高计算机的计算性能。他们建立硬件和软件模型来分析现有的和 课题研究中的计算机的性能,然后将分析结果用于指导新的计算机的研发。

quantum computing (Para.8)
量子计算。

quibit (Para.8)
量子位。quantum bit 的缩写,量子运算的基本单位。

quantum computer (Para.9)
量子计算机。传统计算机中的基本计算单元是“比特” ,而量子计算机中的基本计算单位是“量子

比特”“量子比特”具有与“比特”完全不同的特性,即它不仅可以取“0”或者“1” 。 ,还可以同 时取“0”和“1” (即量子叠加态) 。通常一个“比特”只能表示两种可能状态中的一种,而一个 “量子比特”则可以同时表示两个状态。可见, “量子比特”的信息量比“传统比特”增加了指数 倍。计算速度因此提高了指数倍。目前尚未制造出实用的量子计算机,但它一定会给人类未来的 生活带来意义深远的影响。

switches (Para.13)
交换机。用于局域网(LAN)的多端口连接设备,它只把收到的信息转发到指定的输出端口。

routers (Para.13)
路由器。

by a factor of (Para.13)
一个倍数或分数的表达。具体是“几倍”还是“几分之一”跟前面搭配的动词有关,在表示增加 的词后面表示“多少倍” ,在表示减少的动词后面表示“几分之一” 。

Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) (Para.17)
现场可编程门阵列。FPGAs 是 20 世纪 80 年代中后期出现的一种逻辑电路设计技术,其特点是具 有用户可编程的特性。数字电路中用到的一种集成芯片,可以通过对其进行编程来实现想要的逻 辑功能。 “现场”的意思是编程不需要额外的硬件,只需要有相应软件就可以。

IV. Skills for Reading 根据上下文的线索猜测词义
所谓根据上下文的线索猜测词义,是指读者在阅读过程中根据对语篇的信息、逻辑、背景知识及 语言结构等的综合理解去猜测或推断某一生词、难词、关键词的词义。掌握了这种方法,读者在 阅读过程中就能很快通过上下文提供的线索推断出词义来,从而提高阅读速度和阅读能力。这里 所指的上下文的线索包括定义、解释说明、同位语成分、同义词、反义词、举例等。

V. Skills for Translation 倍数
1. 倍数增加的译法 英语中说“增加了多少倍” ,都是连基数也包括在内的,是表示增加后的结果;而在汉语里所 谓“增加了多少倍” ,则只表示纯粹增加的数量。所以英语里凡表示倍数增加的句型,汉译时 都可译成“是……的几倍” ,或“比……增加(n-1)倍” 。英语中表示倍数增加的表达法有:1) 表增加意义的词(by)n times + 或 by a factor of n;2)n times + 表示增加意义的词的比较级。 倍数比较的译法 1) times + larger than + 被比较对象” “n ,应将其译为“其大小为……的 n 倍” ,或“比……大 n-1 倍” ; 2) times + as + 原级 + as + 被比较对象” “n ,译为“是……的 n 倍” ; 3) times + that(或表比较方面的词)of + 被比较对象” “n ,译为“是……的 n 倍” 。 倍数减少的译法 英语中表示倍数减少的句型在汉译时应当把它译成“减少了或减少到几分之几,或减少了几

2.

3.

倍” 。英语中表示倍数减少的表达法有:1)表减少意义的词(by)n times + 或 by a factor of n; 2)n times + 表示减少意义的词的比较级。

VI. Translation Practice 倍数
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 但是要想真正提高不间断计算系统(如交换机、路由器以及进行强计算操作的计算机)的 能量功效, 系统和芯片制造商需要将时钟速度降低到二分之一 并将能量减少到四分之一 将时钟速度降低到二分之一, 将能量减少到四分之一 将时钟速度降低到二分之一 以下。 以下 2) 自从辐射散发以来,宇宙体积已经增加了 1,000 倍,而光子的温度以相同的倍数减少 以相同的倍数减少。 增加了 以相同的倍数减少 3) 当我们看到早期宇宙的热等离子体散发的辐射时,它当时正以 50 倍于光的速度 倍于光的速度离我们远 以 去。 4) 天王星的质量为地球的 14 倍。 5) 这种反应所产生的氢比蒸汽与木炭反应所产生的多两倍 多两倍。 多两倍 6) 金刚石刀具通常以两倍 两倍于碳钢刀具的速度工作。 两倍 7) 光子扫描时,波速宽度增加了一倍。 增加了一倍。 增加了一倍 8) 1980 年的钢产量是 1970 年的 20 倍。

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 计算机架构 2) 门转换能量 3) 微处理器 4) 散热 5) 绝热过程 6) 热燥声 7) 包检测 8) 通用软件 B. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) irreversible circuit networking equipment reversible memory chip virus checking portable device backplane design switching device routing device

Main Content:

UNIT 7 INTERNET Text A “We Know Where You Are” 科技英语阅读方法 “后置定语”

科技英语翻译技巧 “定语从句” Step: I. Text Organization Parts Paragraphs Main Ideas Part One Para. 1 In the future, location-aware networking will present great opportunities for users and improve the security and effectiveness of Wi-Fi networks. Part Two Paras. 2-11 It summarizes the demand for location-aware technology due to wider application of VoIP and VoIP over Wi-Fi and E911 legislation and present deployment situation in the U.S. It compares different location-aware technologies and summarizes the approaches for Wi-Fi vendors, which are through—current access points, triangulation and RF fingerprinting. Location-aware presence will improve Wi-Fi security in a number of ways.

Part Three

Paras. 12-16

Part Four

Paras. 17-22

II. Language Points With conventional 911, the caller’s location must be provided by the caller … (Para. 4) conventional: a. following what has been customary e.g. His opinion are rather narrow and conventional. … country’s valid street addresses. (Para.4) valid: a. 1) effective because made or done with correct formalities 2) (of arguments, reasons, etc.) well based or sound e.g. (1) The tourists are prevented from entering a country if they do not have a valid passports. (2) The newly appointed project manager raised valid objections to the original plan. validity n. [antonym]: invalid … the dispatcher can send help to a caller’s location even if the caller is incapacitated. (Para.4) incapacitated: a. incapable of doing things e.g. An 82-year-old man suffered a series of heart attacks that left him incapacitated, and other medical problems soon developed. incapacitate v. …, creating a reliable wireless E911 infrastructure is critical. (Para.5) infrastructure: n. 1) the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society 2) an underlying base or foundation esp. for an organization or

a system e.g. (1) The earthquake caused many people injured or dead and much infrastructure damage in Hainan province. (2) The economic infrastructure of China has been greatly enhanced since the adoption of reform and opening-up policy. Users in San Francisco calling across a corporate VPN to a telephony server … (Para.8) corporate: a. of or belonging to a corporation e.g. Corporate bonds are issued by private utilities, transportation companies, industrial enterprises, or banks and finance companies. … how service providers should detect the location of a VoIP phone … (Para.11) detect: v. to discover (the existence or presence of sb. or sth.) e.g. (1) The determined wife finally detected the three criminals who killed her husband 19 years ago. (2) The young woman tried to escape detection by disguising as a man, but her fake passport was detected by the customs officer. detection n. detective a. 侦探的/n. 侦探 detector n. 探测器 … the solution must be both technological and regulatory. (Para.11) regulatory: a. 1) having the purpose of controlling an activity or process, esp. by rules 2) being able to adjust e.g. (1) In the interest of lightening the “regulatory burden on industry,” the new administration of President Ronald Reagan proposed sweeping changes in federal environmental policy. (2) The regulatory function of the central government cannot be seen so far as real estate market is concerned. regulation n. It could then offset those costs … (Para.11) offset: v. to balance; to compensate for e.g. The girl had to offset his small income by living very economically since she wanted to save more for those needy students in the rural areas. … identifying the approximate location of the satellites. (Para.12) approximate: a very near correct; about right e.g. As it was dark when the accident happened, the witness could only give an approximate description of the escaped driver. The latter scenario might work effectively in areas of relatively dense AP coverage, but becomes notably inaccurate in areas where ceiling APs might cover an entire room, as in a warehouse or an open office space. (Para. 14) Paraphrase: Locating Wi-Fi users through access points is effective when the coverage of AP is dense, but will be quite inaccurate in some areas, such as in a warehouse or an open office space, because in these places ceiling APs cover an entire room and it is not dense enough to make an accurate location.

…, so interference from other devices can make triangulation tricky. (Para.15) interference: n. 1) the act or instance of hindering, obstructing or impeding 2) (physics) the inhibition or prevention of clear reception of broadcast signals e.g. (1) The interference in other countries’ internal affairs will arouse international disputes. (2) The interference caused by mobile signals greatly enhanced the danger of the plane, which accounts for the reason why the fine of using mobile on plane is to be increased to about 2,000 yuan. interfere v. APs create this map by emitting test signals into the environment, then measuring the returning signal’s attenuation and reflection while accounting for a phenomenon known as multipath propagation, where signals take multiple paths to a destination. (Para. 16) Paraphrase: Access Points create this map by sending test signals into the environment, then measuring the signal’s attenuation and reflection. While the signals are going out, signals taking different paths to the same destination should be taken into account. … network architects are in a unique position to … (Para.17) architect: n. person who designs and supervises the construction of buildings, etc. e.g. Innovative architects have turned Shanghai into a wonder of buildings. For security purposes, being able to track location could mean locating interlopers that manage to penetrate the defenses protecting the Wi-Fi network. (Para.21) Paraphrase: For security purposes, the ability to track location could mean finding the interlopers who try to penetrate the defenses protecting the Wi-Fi network.
此句子的主语是 being able to track location,谓语为 could mean,宾语为 locating interlopers。后面 的 that 从句是 interlopers 的定语,从定语从句内 protecting the Wi-Fi network 作 defenses 的后置定 语。

Within a Wi-Fi network, roaming between APs is susceptible to interruptions. (Para.22) susceptible: a. easily influenced by sth. e.g. (1) The heavy use of emotional and other non-rational appeals to influence consumer buying patterns by television advertising will have tremendous influence upon the particularly susceptible children audience. (2) It is said that susceptible young men will easily fall in love at the first sight, but such relationship usually won’t last long.

III. Background Information E911 (Enhanced 911) (Para.2)
1996 年,美国通信委员会颁布了一个行政性命令 E911,强制性要求构建一个公众安全无线网络, 即无论在任何时间和地点,都能通过手机信号追踪到用户。

VoIP over Wi-Fi (Para.2)
基于无限保真网的语音传输。IP 语音传输(VoIP)提供了以低成本在网上打电话的方案,而无限

保真网扔掉了连线。如果两者相结合,就可以通过任何能够访问的无限保真网连接,以低成本拨 打无线电话。

ANI (Automatic Number Identification) (Para.4)
自动号码识别。它能够识别出呼叫对方的电话号码。在呼叫的同时发射双音多频信号,这样用户 就可以知道对方的电话号码,从而对来电进行筛选接听。

Uniform Resource Identifier (URIs) (Para.9)
统一资源指示器。它们是标识资源或概念的文本字串,如在万维网上常看到的以“http:”或“ftp:” 打头的字符串。任何人都能够创建统一资源指示器,其拥有权很清楚地表示出来,因此它从技术 上构成一种理想的基础,可以在它的上面构筑一个全球网。

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) (Para.10)
公共交换电话网。它是一种全球语音通信电路交换网络。当今典型的公共交换电话网用于无线和 有线接入网络的语音和数据通信。

Triangulation (Para.15)
三角测量法是用于确定无线传输者的位置的一种方法。

RF fingerprinting (Para.16)
射频指纹识别技术。它利用智能算法改进了无线局域网使用的常规跟踪技术。

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) (Para.18)
虚拟局域网。指在交换局域网的基础上,采用网络管理软件构建的而非通过硬件连接的,可跨越 不同网段、不同网络的端到端的逻辑网络。虚拟局域网的最大优点是,当一台计算机的物理位置 发生变动时,它不需要任何硬件连接却仍然能够处于同一个虚拟局域网中。

IV. Skills for Reading 后置定语
定语用来对中心词语进行修饰或补充说明,科技英语文章强调行文严谨,因此后置定语的使用是 相当广泛的。在语法结构上,汉语使用前置定语较多,而英语更多地使用后置定语来修饰词语。 在略读文章时,通常对于繁杂的定语尤其是后置定语可以忽略不看,而是重点把握其所修饰的中 心词。但是当寻读和精读文章时,则需要重点注意这些定语修饰成分,从而更好地了解句子的中 心词及中心信息。经常使用的几种后置定语如下: 1. 介词短语作后置定语 1). of 表示所属关系,意为“……的” 2). for 表示“供……之用的,对……来说的” 3). with 表示特征,意为“具有……的,用……的” 2. 分词作后置定语 3. 形容词及形容词短语作后置定语 4. 副词作后置定语 5. 定语从句作后置定语

V. Skills for Translation 定语从句
由于科技英语中有相当多的专业类知识概念,需要对其加以解释、说明、修饰、补充或者限定, 因而会出现大量的定语从句。 1. 逆序合译法 比较短的或者比较长的定语从句,翻译时放到被修饰词的前面很通顺,这种译法叫做逆序合 译法。 2. 顺序分译法 当定语从句很长,或者置于被修饰词之前很不通顺时,就作为一个短语或分句来翻译,这种 译法叫做顺序分译法。大多数非限定性定语从句采取这种译法。有时翻译时需要根据情况在 分句中增补被修饰词。

VI. Translation Practice 定语从句
1. Exercises for Practicing the Skills 1) 接着,软件再依据发音字典,即分条罗列每个文字音素的 分条罗列每个文字音素的参考书籍,把发声者所读的文字 分条罗列每个文字音素的 转换成一系列音素。 2) 人类的语音极其精妙、复杂,专家对于自然语音的 自然语音的多种特性其实只略知皮毛而已。 自然语音的 3) 从提出可能的补救方法来说, 这场辩论非常重要。 同时我们也可以衡量肆无忌惮的间谍软 肆无忌惮的间谍软 件给我们个人用户乃至公司网络带来的 至公司网络带来的损失。 件给我们个人用户乃至公司网络带来的 4) 应该鼓励联邦及州执法机关积极主动地追捕和起诉那些暗中利用间谍软件破坏正常服务、 那些暗中利用间谍软件破坏正常服务、 那些暗中利用间谍软件破坏正常服务 盗窃数据或者进行其他违法活动的人。 盗窃数据或者进行其他违法活动的人 5) 一个可能的概念是一种在某种程度上能够储存所测量到的数据、 一种在某种程度上能够储存所测量到的数据、 一种在某种程度上能够储存所测量到的数据 并且能够与外部世界进行 交流的设备。 交流的 6) 书面文件上的签名的作用在于证明这一文件确实由签名的人所书写 这一文件确实由签名的人所书写。 这一文件确实由签名的人所书写 7) 美国的业务提供商现正在抓住托管 IP 电话的机遇,运用一种“按照你的想法”的思维, 来满足特定企业的需要。 来满足特定企业的需要 8) 尺寸是纳米材料的主要特征—它的大小刚好介于个体原子或分子与相应的块状材料之间 它的大小刚好介于个体原子或分子与相应的块状材料之间。 它的大小刚好介于个体原子或分子与相应的块状材料之间 9) 书面语言只使用少数符号, 它们很容易用数字形式编码 并且可以用无数的方法进行组合 字形式编码, 它们很容易用数字形式编码, 以便表达意义。 以便表达意义 10) 以往, 美国航空航天局仅选择一些大型航空航天公司为合作伙伴进行进一步研发,合约一 合约一 旦签订,即使试验的技术没成功,美国航空航天局也无法撤回投资。 旦签订,即使试验的技术没成功,美国航空航天局也无法撤回投资。甘普意识到这种体制 的缺陷,他知道他和哈德森的机会来了。

2. Word and Phrase Translation A. 1) 无线保真 2) 公共安全应答站 3) 自动数字识别技术 4) 自动定位识别技术 5) 蜂窝网络 6) 虚拟局域网 7) 数字用户线路

8) 统一资源指示器 9) 公共电话交换网络 10) 误差幅度 B. 1) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) 2) GPS (Global Position System) 3) Assisted-GPS 4) base station 5) AP (access point) 6) licensed bands 7) multipath propagation 8) VPN (Virtue Private Network) 9) RF fingerprinting 10) roaming capability


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